Background: An effective antimicrobial stewardship program, allowing the study of the evolution of the susceptibility profiles as well as the emergence of resistant strains, is essential at the national level. In Lebanon, a National Registry of the Epidemiology of bacterial pathogens find their susceptibility profiles is lacking.

Objectives: Assessing the epidemiology of the main isolated bacteria as well as their distribution and susceptibility profiles.

Methods: A multicenter study was performed in seven centers located in all districts in Lebanon over a period of 23 months (January 2015-November 2016) from ambulatory and hospitalized patients. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the collected isolates was performed by the disc diffusion method (KirbyBauer), according to the joint recommendations of CASFM and EUCAST.

Results: A total of 1026 strains of Gram negatives bacteria were identified and collected. Among them, Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated (69%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.4%), Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ESBL rates ranged from 4% (in Proteus mirabilis) to 34% in E. coli (34%) in parallel to lower susceptibility rates to third generation cephalosporins. All Gram-negative pathogens (expect for A. baumanni) still have high susceptibility rates to amikacin, carbanepems, and colistin.

Conclusions: The results obtained from this study create a solid starting point for the observatory and give a comprehensive picture of the antibiotic resistance in the country.

Keywords: antibiotics; Lebanon; observatory; resistance

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