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Author: Aumaima Tariq Abid1, Rusul M Alhilo2, Hajer Alaa Obeid2, Saif M. Hassan1, Saly Naser Abbas3
1Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq.
2Pharmacy college, Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala, Iraq.
3Section of postgraduation studies / College of Education for Pure Sciences / university of Karbala, Iraq.

The aim of this study was to assess the quality of some selected ibuprofen products in community pharmacies in Iraq. Different parameters of quality control of pharmaceutical products can guarantee the quality and bioavailability and optimal therapeutic activity. Used quality control parameters, i.e., the variation of weight, friability, disintegration time, dissolution time were tested in vitro. The weight range was (0.56-0.60) g, (0.26-0.33) g, (0.48-0.54) g for Apifen (Ajanta) (400), Apifen (Ajanta) (200), and ibuprofen (flamingo) (400) respectively. Disintegration time was (18min, 17min, and 13min) for Apifen (Ajanta) (400), Apifen (Ajanta) (200), and ibuprofen (flamingo) (400) respectively. Dissolution time at 0.1 N HCL 12.9, 12.2, 18.5, For Apifen (Ajanta) 200 mg, Apifen (Ajanta) 400mg, Ibuprofen 400mg and the dissolution time at Phosphate buffer pH6.8 88.7, 86.6, 90.2 Apifen200mg, Apifen 400 mg, Ibuprofen 400mg. The results showed that all products fulfill the given specification of pharmacopeia (USP-NF) which its dissolution rate was less % in USP (85%after 30min) in phosphate buffer and in 0.1N HCL (18% after 30 min) for ibuprofen(flamingo). Disintegration of ibuprofen 400(flamingo) showed the quickest disintegration while Apifen (400) the slowest.

Author: Saad Dagher1, Khalil Karam1
1Assistant Professor, Department of Cardiology, Najjar Hospital, Lebnan.

The primary cause of mortality for people in developed nations is coronary heart disease, or CHD. It is noted that with age the fat deposits in the wall of the coronary arteries as well as the other blood vessels supplying the heart. As a result of this deposition, there is a decrease in the blood supply to the heart causing angina and shortness of breath and may also result in a fatal myocardial infarction. There are several modifiable risk factors for CHD and one of them being the increased level of the amino acid i.e. homocysteine (HCY) which when treated can reduce the risk of CHD. The positive correlation between hyper homocysteinemia and cardio vascular disease (CVD) has established firmly with the data derived from experimental and epidemiological observations. Clinical data authenticate that HCY is an independent risk factor for CVD. The current article is aiming to evaluate potential role of HCY on CVD risk at molecular level, and deep insights into a pathophysiology of CVD and their associations with CVD.

Author: Ahmad Shihab Ahmad1, Nedhal A. Al_Douri2, Abd Uljaleel A.Q3, Ashwaq Najemaldeen Abbas4
1Nursing Department of Nursing, Al Manara College of medical sciences, Maysan, Al Amara, IRAQ.
2Department of Pharmacy, Al-Manara College of medical sciences, Maysan, Al\_Amara, IRAQ.
3Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq.
4College of Dentistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.

Among teenagers and adults in both developed and underdeveloped countries, drug abuse is the most often mentioned psychiatric problem. Although young individuals use drugs more than older people, drug addiction is a worldwide issue among both youth and elderly people. The study intends to assess students’ knowledge regarding drug abuse and find differences between their knowledge and sociodemographic features. Descriptive study design among 200 convenience sample non-probabilistically chosen students. Two sections make up the study tool: knowledge scale and socioeconomic demographic traits. Interview data gathered at Al-Maarif College in Al-Ramady City. According to the results, 68(34%) of students between the ages of 19 and 21 paid first and second stage from Al-Maarif College; 106(53%) of them are men, 124(62%) have moderate socioeconomic level. With mean and standard deviation of 67.45±13.84, 74% of students had a moderate degree of awareness regarding drugs misuse. Students’ knowledge with age, sex, and socioeconomic level at p values (0.000, 0.000, and 0.003) respectively shows a strong statistically significant link. In general, students knew just a minor degree of drug abuse. Medical education is often seen as somewhat difficult.

Author: Dr Shipra kanwar1, Dr Prashant sharma2, Dr Kartik guleria3
1MS obstetrics and gynaecology at CH Ghumarwin, Himachal Pradesh, India.
2MS general surgery at RH bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India.
3MS general surgery at CH Ghumarwin, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background: Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse, affects 10-15% of couples within reproductive age. In India, factors like delayed marriages, lifestyle changes, and conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis contribute to infertility. Awareness and understanding, particularly in rural areas like District Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, remain insufficient. This study assesses the knowledge and perceptions of infertility among women of reproductive age in this region. Material & Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in District Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, from January 2024 to May 2024. The study included 400 women of reproductive age who had been residents of the district for at least 12 months. Data were collected using a pre-tested Google Form questionnaire distributed via email and social media platforms. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic information and knowledge about infertility, with scoring based on correct responses. Data were analyzed using Epi Info V7 software. Results: The study revealed a diverse socio-demographic profile among participants, with the majority aged 26-35 years (33.0%), followed by 18-25 years (26.8%), 36-45 years (26.0%), and 46-50 years (14.3%). Most participants were married (52.3%) and Hindu (77.5%). Employment status showed 45.5% employed, 33.8% unemployed, and 20.8% students. Educational attainment varied, with 38.0% being graduates. Awareness about infertility was high, with 80.5% having heard of it. However, detailed knowledge was moderate to low in several areas: causes (PCOS 62.8%, endometriosis 61.5%), lifestyle factors (smoking 66.0%, obesity 64.0%), and treatment options (ART 53.0%). Knowledge scores showed that 24.0% had very good knowledge, 29.5% good, 30.3% fair, and 16.3% poor. Conclusion: The study highlights significant gaps in knowledge and awareness of infertility among women of reproductive age in District Bilaspur. While basic awareness is relatively high, there is a need for comprehensive educational efforts to address misconceptions and provide detailed information on infertility. Targeted public health education is essential to improve understanding, reduce stigma, and support women’s reproductive health in this region.

Author: Raid M Al Abood1, Ashwaq Najemaldeen Abbas2, Anees Abbas Yaseen3, Saif M. Hassan4
1Department of Pharmacy, AL Safawa university college, Karbala, Iraq.
2College of Dentistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
3Department of pharmacy, Al-Amal College for Specialized Medical Sciences, Karbala, Iraq.
4Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq.

Adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma—among other forms of lung cancer—are collectively referred to as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Those who have undergone Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy (HEC) and Medium Emetogenic Chemotherapy (MEC) should especially be concerned about chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The aim of this work is to evaluate anti-emetic performance in controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. techniques: Ondansetron (OND), Dexamethasone (Dex), Metoclopramide (Met), Ondansetron plus Dexamethasone (OND + Dex), and Aprepitant plus Dexamethasone (Apr + Dex) were five groups broken out from 361 patients. Evaluating the percentage of patients in each group suffering with acute, delayed, and total CINV was the primary goals. After 24 hours or more following therapy, acute and delayed CINV severity were respectively approximated. On chemotherapy day, likert score of 1 or higher for nausea or at least 1 vomiting event; delayed NV was defined as any day between days 1 and 7. Out of 361 individuals, HEC was received by 200 (55.4%) and MEC by 161 (44.6%). Starting within 24 hours after emetogenic drug delivery, HEC medicines generated significantly higher nausea and vomiting (p<0.05) than MEC during the acute period. Whereas vomiting was not statistically different in HEC patients compared to MEC patients, nausea was considerably higher in the delayed phase (>24 hours post-administration) HEC patients (p<0.05). Based on the Likert score, patients utilizing HEC showed improved degree of nausea with time whereas it was worse on the first day. Against acute and delay phases, ondansetron plus corticosteroid combination showed a notable degree of protection. The combinations of aprepitant with corticosteroid, dexamethasone alone (83.7%), and ondansetron alone (83.4%) did not show any appreciable difference (p> 0.05). Based on the results, typical medication regimens to prevent CINV in patients with NSCLC undergoing chemotherapy were ondansetron with corticosteroid combination.

Author: Saad Dagher1, Khalil Karam1
1Assistant Professor, Department of Cardiology, Najjar Hospital, Lebnan.

Background: Colon volvulus is the rotation of a section of the colon around its mesenteric axis, which can cause obstruction of the bowel lumen and its blood supply. This condition is frequently observed in regions referred to as the “volvulus belt” and commonly affects the sigmoid colon (60–70%) and the cecum (25–40%). Case Presentation: We describe a case involving a 50-year-old female of African background who presented with symptoms of bowel blockage and an enlarged abdomen without specific abdominal pain. An abdominal laparotomy revealed the presence of both sigmoid and cecal volvulus, with no signs of perforation or ischemia. Discussion and Conclusion: One potential risk factor for sigmoid colon volvulus is the length of the rectum and sigmoid colon, while a mobile cecum is considered a possible cause of cecal volvulus. Management of colon volvulus is contentious and must be tailored to each individual case, depending largely on the viability of the colonic walls and the patient’s overall condition.

Author: Hajer Alaa Obeid, Rusul M. Alhilo1, Aumaima Tariq Abid2, Saly Naser Abbas3, Saif M. Hassan2
1Pharmacy college, Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala, Iraq.
2Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq.
3Section of postgraduation studies / College of Education for Pure Sciences / university of Karbala, Iraq.

Since it is one of the most crucial quality control tests carried out on pharmaceutical dosage forms and is currently turning into a tool for prediction, most research have employed dissolving test. bioavailability, and occasionally substituting clinical research to establish bioequivalence. Drug pharmacological action is substantially influenced by their dissolution behavior. Actually, it has been shown and usually referred to as in vitro-in vivo correlation, IVIVC, a direct association between in vitro dissolution rate of several medications and their bioavailability. We tried to gather numerous studies and profit from past experiences in an attempt to investigate the possible alterations that might increase the bioavailability of aspirin, lower gastrointestinal side effect and offer a fast effect in our study. Our investigation was planned practically, and the cornerstone of our approach was a dissolution test. The course of research was altered during the COVID-19 epidemic to a theoretical review. The aim of the study is to provide prospective studies with the necessary information that reflect the effect of formulation changes on the in vivo performance by means of excipients and dosage form formulations, so exploring, in a comparative manner, their impact on aspirin’s dissolution rate.

Author: Ali A. R. Aldallal1, Ahmed MH Al-Mudhafar2, Rudha Naser Hussein3, Maryam A. Razzaq4, Salam Jasim Mohammed5, Mustafa Jawad Kazem6, Mojtaba Jassem shacklook6, Mohammed Kadhum Mohammed6, Yas Radhi Rashid6
1PhD Pharmacology & Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy/University of Jabbir ibn Hayyan, Iraq.
2PhD Pharmacology & Therapeutics, College of Medicine /University of Kufa, Iraq.
3MD, MSc (Endocrine) Adult endocrinologist, Al-Najaf Specialized Diabetes & Endocrine Center, Iraq.
4MSc Pharmacology & Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy/University of Jabbir ibn Hayyan, Iraq.
5PhD Community Medicine, College of Medicine /University of Kufa, Iraq
6Fifth stage students, College of Pharmacy/University of Jabbir ibn Hayyan, Iraq.

Background: Lack of adherence to anti-diabetic drugs is related with poor glycemic-control and sub-optimal profits from their given drugs which causes insignificant control of blood sugar between diabetic patients and can result in failure of treatment, enhanced development of complications and augmented mortality. Objective: The following study aimed to evaluate adherence to antidiabetic drugs among diabetic patients and associated factors in Annajaf Community-Iraq. Methods: A “cross sectional study” was conducted among 380 diabetic patients at Al-Hakeem center for diabetic patients at Annajaf governorate in Iraqi. The patients ages were ≤18 years who have been administered anti-diabetic medication for as a minimum three months. Pretested questionnaires have been used. Variables that have been gathered were covered socio-demographic characteristics. Adherence was assessed the usage of Iraqi anti-diabetic medicine adherence scale. Inferential and descriptive statistic have been analyzed achieved to calculate adherence level to anti-diabetic drugs and the related factors. Results: The level of adherence to anti-diabetic drugs was 71.8% whom highly adherent, while non-adherent [intermediate adherence was 84(22.1%) and low adherence 23(6.1%)]. When univariate analysis was done, the age, smoking status, life style, type of antidiabetic, HbA1C, education, duration of Disease, and no. of comorbidities were showed chi-squared test statistical significance with level of adherence, while by multivariate analysis, the type of antidiabetic, education, and no. of comorbidities were showed statistical significance with level of adherence. Conclusion: About three in each four patients were well adherent to anti-diabetic therapy. Many strategies designed to refining the availability of anti-diabetic medications and supplying health education which might increase the adherence level.