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Volume 71 (2024) Issue 1

Author: Aumaima Tariq Abid1, Rusul M Alhilo2, Hajer Alaa Obeid2, Saif M. Hassan1, Saly Naser Abbas3
1Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq.
2Pharmacy college, Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala, Iraq.
3Section of postgraduation studies / College of Education for Pure Sciences / university of Karbala, Iraq.

The aim of this study was to assess the quality of some selected ibuprofen products in community pharmacies in Iraq. Different parameters of quality control of pharmaceutical products can guarantee the quality and bioavailability and optimal therapeutic activity. Used quality control parameters, i.e., the variation of weight, friability, disintegration time, dissolution time were tested in vitro. The weight range was (0.56-0.60) g, (0.26-0.33) g, (0.48-0.54) g for Apifen (Ajanta) (400), Apifen (Ajanta) (200), and ibuprofen (flamingo) (400) respectively. Disintegration time was (18min, 17min, and 13min) for Apifen (Ajanta) (400), Apifen (Ajanta) (200), and ibuprofen (flamingo) (400) respectively. Dissolution time at 0.1 N HCL 12.9, 12.2, 18.5, For Apifen (Ajanta) 200 mg, Apifen (Ajanta) 400mg, Ibuprofen 400mg and the dissolution time at Phosphate buffer pH6.8 88.7, 86.6, 90.2 Apifen200mg, Apifen 400 mg, Ibuprofen 400mg. The results showed that all products fulfill the given specification of pharmacopeia (USP-NF) which its dissolution rate was less % in USP (85%after 30min) in phosphate buffer and in 0.1N HCL (18% after 30 min) for ibuprofen(flamingo). Disintegration of ibuprofen 400(flamingo) showed the quickest disintegration while Apifen (400) the slowest.

Author: Saad Dagher1, Khalil Karam1
1Assistant Professor, Department of Cardiology, Najjar Hospital, Lebnan.

The primary cause of mortality for people in developed nations is coronary heart disease, or CHD. It is noted that with age the fat deposits in the wall of the coronary arteries as well as the other blood vessels supplying the heart. As a result of this deposition, there is a decrease in the blood supply to the heart causing angina and shortness of breath and may also result in a fatal myocardial infarction. There are several modifiable risk factors for CHD and one of them being the increased level of the amino acid i.e. homocysteine (HCY) which when treated can reduce the risk of CHD. The positive correlation between hyper homocysteinemia and cardio vascular disease (CVD) has established firmly with the data derived from experimental and epidemiological observations. Clinical data authenticate that HCY is an independent risk factor for CVD. The current article is aiming to evaluate potential role of HCY on CVD risk at molecular level, and deep insights into a pathophysiology of CVD and their associations with CVD.

Author: Ahmad Shihab Ahmad1, Nedhal A. Al_Douri2, Abd Uljaleel A.Q3, Ashwaq Najemaldeen Abbas4
1Nursing Department of Nursing, Al Manara College of medical sciences, Maysan, Al Amara, IRAQ.
2Department of Pharmacy, Al-Manara College of medical sciences, Maysan, Al\_Amara, IRAQ.
3Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq.
4College of Dentistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.

Among teenagers and adults in both developed and underdeveloped countries, drug abuse is the most often mentioned psychiatric problem. Although young individuals use drugs more than older people, drug addiction is a worldwide issue among both youth and elderly people. The study intends to assess students’ knowledge regarding drug abuse and find differences between their knowledge and sociodemographic features. Descriptive study design among 200 convenience sample non-probabilistically chosen students. Two sections make up the study tool: knowledge scale and socioeconomic demographic traits. Interview data gathered at Al-Maarif College in Al-Ramady City. According to the results, 68(34%) of students between the ages of 19 and 21 paid first and second stage from Al-Maarif College; 106(53%) of them are men, 124(62%) have moderate socioeconomic level. With mean and standard deviation of 67.45±13.84, 74% of students had a moderate degree of awareness regarding drugs misuse. Students’ knowledge with age, sex, and socioeconomic level at p values (0.000, 0.000, and 0.003) respectively shows a strong statistically significant link. In general, students knew just a minor degree of drug abuse. Medical education is often seen as somewhat difficult.

Author: Dr Shipra kanwar1, Dr Prashant sharma2, Dr Kartik guleria3
1MS obstetrics and gynaecology at CH Ghumarwin, Himachal Pradesh, India.
2MS general surgery at RH bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India.
3MS general surgery at CH Ghumarwin, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background: Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse, affects 10-15% of couples within reproductive age. In India, factors like delayed marriages, lifestyle changes, and conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis contribute to infertility. Awareness and understanding, particularly in rural areas like District Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, remain insufficient. This study assesses the knowledge and perceptions of infertility among women of reproductive age in this region. Material & Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in District Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, from January 2024 to May 2024. The study included 400 women of reproductive age who had been residents of the district for at least 12 months. Data were collected using a pre-tested Google Form questionnaire distributed via email and social media platforms. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic information and knowledge about infertility, with scoring based on correct responses. Data were analyzed using Epi Info V7 software. Results: The study revealed a diverse socio-demographic profile among participants, with the majority aged 26-35 years (33.0%), followed by 18-25 years (26.8%), 36-45 years (26.0%), and 46-50 years (14.3%). Most participants were married (52.3%) and Hindu (77.5%). Employment status showed 45.5% employed, 33.8% unemployed, and 20.8% students. Educational attainment varied, with 38.0% being graduates. Awareness about infertility was high, with 80.5% having heard of it. However, detailed knowledge was moderate to low in several areas: causes (PCOS 62.8%, endometriosis 61.5%), lifestyle factors (smoking 66.0%, obesity 64.0%), and treatment options (ART 53.0%). Knowledge scores showed that 24.0% had very good knowledge, 29.5% good, 30.3% fair, and 16.3% poor. Conclusion: The study highlights significant gaps in knowledge and awareness of infertility among women of reproductive age in District Bilaspur. While basic awareness is relatively high, there is a need for comprehensive educational efforts to address misconceptions and provide detailed information on infertility. Targeted public health education is essential to improve understanding, reduce stigma, and support women’s reproductive health in this region.